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      论和声与钢琴学习的相互作用论文

      论文 时间:2019-10-04 我要投稿
      【www.dnfdy.com - 论文】

        随着社会的发展,越来越多的人开始学习钢琴。在国内的各大院校中,钢琴已经成为基础课程,但对于钢琴的学习却存在着诸多问题,特别是对于非钢琴专业的学生,在钢琴的学习过程中更是问题重重。当然技术的原因固然重要,只有技术达到了一定的程度才能够更加顺利地完成一首作品,但在练习的过程中,对于作品的理解更是重中之重。对于作品中的节奏、旋法等问题在初期的学习过程中能够很轻松地掌握,但作品中和声风格的把握却要求学生要有一定的和声学知识才能更加游刃有余地把握作品的整体风格,才能更加快速有效地完成一首钢琴曲的弹奏。

        诚然,在两门课程的学习过程中,二者是不可分割的整体。但目前有相当一部分学生在学习和声学之前就已然在心中把这门课程想象得艰难无比,自信心消除了一半,殊不知在初级的钢琴学习过程中已经被相关的和声知识的渗透过,只是自己没有注意到而已。当然这与教师还有一定的关系。追其究竟,还是要强调理论学习在技术练习中的重要作用。

        和声学分为古典和声、近现代和声、中国民族调式和声几个阶段。古典和声是我们学习和研究的初级阶段及主体,在初级钢琴学习中主要也是针对古典音乐作品的学习。学生只有在了解和掌握古典和声的规则和具体的运用方法,才有可能在其它的方面取得成绩。毕竟,所有的其它形式的和声都是以古典和声为基础的。而作为师范院校的学生来说,对于古典和声不仅要对其熟练地掌握,更为重要的一点就是在教学方法上的运用,也就是如何用更好、更简洁的方法教会学生在古典和声中诸多的知识点。

        在具体的方法上,重点强调所不允许的和声进行,会让学生深刻的记忆,在具体的做题中就会注意不去犯这样的错误。如在连接的经验上,可以把连接的原则精简到五条,即:上三声部平稳进行;防止四部同向;防止平行五、八度,隐伏五、八度;防止任一声部做不良的旋律进行;防止对斜。把繁琐的和声进行的连接原则用几句话概括其宗旨和要领。在和声的写作中,不仅要求正确的连接,而且写作的速度也很重要。首先,看清大体的框架,整体的旋律特点,做到心中有数;其次,也是最为重要的一点,不要考虑音响的效果,因为我们在连接做题的时候,就已经是按照古典和声的原则而进行的,这些古典和声的规则正是在许许多多的作品中前人归纳和总结出的,本身就具有严谨性、科学性。它强调音响均衡,讲究声部间的对比,其音响效果就应该是佳良的。所以,在写作中只要把精力集中放在规则条目的正确运用上就会达到最好的效果。在整体的布局上,起线、括线、小节线、终止线都是不能少的。其次,在记谱上要求规范化,也就是所说的“印刷体”,记谱工整、清晰,也不容易出现不应该出现的错误。最后,就是按照步骤做题,标明调式、调性,标明和弦的标记,然后进行连接。

        除此之外,在具体的写作中还应遵循一定的经验性的规律。熟练地运用现成的套路,比如所讲的“四音音列”,旋律是主音下行级进到属或者属音上行级进到主音,这种旋律进行出现时就可以配以固定的和声进行模式,节奏不可以太“碎”,也就是把节奏的进行整齐的规划,主旋律的风格要与所配和声相联系,也就是所配的和声进行要符合乐曲的主题,其声部的进行,肢体的运用都要考虑到主旋律的特点,尽量少用意外进行。当然,用现代和声很容易表现一些特殊的感情,比如勋伯格的《一个华沙的幸存者》中,运用十二音方法作曲,它选用半音阶的十二音自由组成一个序列,以原形、逆行、倒影、倒影逆行四种形式组成一首乐曲。一些现代和声手法的运用中,我们并非说是运用意外的进行是错误的,它只是表现主义的一个代表,它所要表现得艺术也是夸张、变形的,虽然也是一种风格的表现,但对于初学者来说,只能混淆其对于和声的理解,容易造成原则上的错误。要为以后的学习打下坚实的基础,首先就必须掌握古典和声的规则,熟练的运用才能有更好的创新。所以,对于初学者来说,严格地按照和声规则进行训练,是最迅速最简捷的方法。只有熟练的掌握了和声学中的连接,才能在具体的作品中快速地认识和声的功能作用。

        初级的钢琴练习曲中如车尔尼的599、849 练习曲中,多数都运用正三和弦的伴奏。在练习过程当中如果可以和所学的和声内容相互结合,通过理论的认识来更加深入全面的掌握作品,那么在练习过程中将达到事半功倍的效果。学生学习知识的一个大的缺陷就是不能很好地学以致于不能相互贯通,对于初学者而言要达到如此的要求还是很难的。这就要求教师要有适当的引导,并且理论和技能课程的教师要相互沟通,力求在课程的设置与进度上能够达到一致,这样将会更加有助于学生的学习也同样可以增加学习兴趣。和声学习过程,其中属七和弦的运用是很重要的知识点,不仅在和声中是一分水岭,在具体的作品中属七和弦的运用是确定调式调性,完整表现音乐语言的重要标志,熟练地掌握属七和弦具有重要的意义。属七和弦是建立在音阶第五级上的七和弦,叫做属七和弦。属七和弦属于不协和和弦,是其中最常见的一种,它由大三度、纯五度和小七度构成,也就是大三和弦加小七度,在大小调中结构是相同的。这个过程中需要学生掌握属七和弦的性质、结构、原位与转位及属七和弦的准备与解决。属七和弦的学习需要掌握的内容较多,在这个过程中亦可结合一些学生比较感兴趣的作品多做分析与说明,来强调其和弦的重要性。

        如作品《少女的祈祷》,这是一首传与后世的名作,旋律优美而富有诗意,色彩明朗而清纯亮丽。此曲为降E 大调,开始的引子部分第三、四小节处是非常明显的S-D 的进行,通过简单的两个和弦已经确定了音乐的调性色彩。在接下来的主题部分,使用的T-S-D 的功能进行,属七和弦运用了其第二转位,并且在乐曲的变奏部分也没有离开这样的功能进行。通过这样的和声分析,使这样一首看似繁琐的乐曲变得清晰明朗,在学生弹奏的过程中也能比较轻松地掌握。同时在和声的课堂上通过这样类似的谱例进行分析讲解,让学生真正地接触和声、感受和声从而能够自如地运用和声,起到二者相辅相成的作用,从而提高学生的学习兴趣和综合水平。

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