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      欢迎来到原中小学教育资源网!

      基本乐理知识课件

      课件 时间:2017-10-13 我要投稿
      【www.dnfdy.com - 课件】

        导语:掌握基本乐理知识,才能更好进行相关的学习。下面是小编整理的基本乐理知识课件,欢迎大家阅读和参考。

        基本乐理知识课件

        1.大调

        依照十二平均律的系统,我们可以从任何一个半音(DO、#DO、RE、#RE、MI、FA、#FA、SOL、#SOL、LA、#LA、SI)开始,依照大调的音程排列次序来做出一个全新的大调,以C大调为

        例:

        I II III IV V VI VII I

        全音 全音 半音 全音 全音 全音 半音

        A:主音、导音 :

        每个大调都有七个音,您看到的罗马数字就是我们为这七个音排列的级数,第一个音为I级音做为整个大调最主要的音常常被称为"主音",而第七个音为VII级音作为引导整个音阶再度回到主音的VII级音常常被称为"导音"。

        B:大调的组成规则:

        每个音之间的音程大小,依序为『全-全-半-全-全-全-半』,这就是大调的组成规则,我们将整个音阶分成两部分:『DO、RE、MI、FA』+『SOL、LA、SI、DO』,称之为"音型",每个音型含四个音,其间的音程距离都是『全、全、半』,所以一个大调就是由两个『全、全、半』音型,中间以一个全音连接而成。整个大调音阶组成的口决是:"全全半、全、全全半"

        C:升级大调

        例1:

        以C大调为基础,一个大调应有两个音型,把C大调的两个音型去掉前面那一个,只剩下后面的SOL、LA、SI、DO部分,在后面再接一个"全全半"的音型,在两个音型之间加上一个全音连接,成为"RE、MI、#FA、SOL",其中的FA需要升半音来做成"全全半"音型,因此这个大调就是:此大调的主音是SOL,所以调名就是G大调,调号是#FA

        例2:

        以C大调为基础,一个大调应有两个音型,把C大调的两个音型去掉前面那一个,保留后面的RE、MI、#FA、SOL,会再得到一个新的音型LA、SI、#DO、RE:

        这个大调的主音是RE,所以调名就是D大调,然后调号是#FA与#DO

        例3:

        以C大调为基础,一个大调应有两个音型,把C大调的两个音型去掉前面那一个,保留后面的LA、SI、#DO、RE得到一个新的音型MI、#FA、#SOL、LA:

        这个大调的主音是LA,所以调名就是A大调,调号是#FA、#DO与#SOL由此三例继续做下去,我们会得到7个大调:G大调、D大调、A大调、E大调、B大调、#F大调、#C大调,而这七个调的调号有一个共同点,就是延续前一个调的调号再增加一个新的调号,顺序是:#FA、#DO、#SOL、#RE、#LA、#MI与#SI,列表如下:

        C G D A E B #F #C

        D 降级大调

        例1:

        降级大调与升级大调相反,以C大调为基础,一个大调应有两个音型,在一开始去掉C大调上面的音型留下下面的DO、RE、MI、FA,然后下面再接一个音型,用一个全音连接起来得到FA、SOL、LA、降SI的音型:这个大调的主音是FA,所以调名就是F大调,调号是降SI

        例2:

        一样的方法,以C大调为基础,在一开始去掉C大调上面的音型,保留下面的音型,在向下接一个音型,得到一个新音型:降SI、DO、RE、降MI这个大调的主音是降SI,所以调名就是降B大调,调号是降SI、降MI

        依此类推,得到7个降级大调:F大调、降B大调、降E大调、降A大调、降D大调、降G大调、降C大调这7个大调,这七个调的调号有一个共同点:就是延续前一个调的调号,增加一个新的调号,顺序是:降SI、降MI、降LA、降RE、降SOL、降DO、降FA,列表如下:

        C F 降B 降E 降A 降D 降G 降C

        注意:十二平均律中只有12个音,只能做出12个大调,可是您算一下,C大调 + 7个升级大调 +7个降级大调总共有15个,怎么会多3个?原因很简单,其中一定有三个调是重复的,需要扣掉,但怎么有重复的?原因很简单,就是"同音异名"造成的。现将升级大调与降级大调的调名列出来哪3个调是重复的,一目了然。

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7

        G D A E B #F #C (升级大调)

        F 降B 降E 降A 降D 降G 降C (降级大调)

        其中蓝色的调名表明这6个调互相是同音异名的调:

        B大调(5个升记号) 同 降C大调(7个降记号)

        #F大调(6个升记号) 同 降G大调(6个降记号)

        #C大调(7个升记号) 同 降D大调(5个降记号)

        其中(B/降C)、(#F/降G)、(#C/降D)根本就是同一个音,既然主音相同,那音阶自然就完全一样了,只是写法不同而已。

        2.小调

        小调与大调相比可就简单多了,每一个大调都有一个附属的小调,而且这个附属小调所用的调号是共用该大调的调号,我们可以将小调看成是"寄生"于大调的另一种音阶。将该大调的主音向下移小三度就可以找到小调的主音了,

        例1:

        以C大调为例,其附属小调就是a小调了:

        本例中下面那一行就是C大调的附属小调a小调,确定了主音是LA后,向上排7个自然音上去,因为C大调没有任何的升降记号,所以a小调也就没有任何的升降记号。

        例2:

        本例是二个升记号的D大调,附属小调就是b小调,其他的音往上推,因为调号都写在前面了,所以不用去想哪个音要升或要降了。这种小调称为自然小音阶,在作曲中并不常用。

        小调的分类

        小调分"自然小音阶"、"和声小音阶"、"旋律小音阶"、"现代小音阶"四种,其区别是:

        a 自然小音阶:

        除了调号之外,完全不加任何临时记号。

        b 和声小音阶:

        因为和声学导音的概念,导音应该和主音相差半音,所以除了调号之外,将自然小音阶的七级音升高半音,就成为和声小音阶。

        c. 旋律小音阶:

        除了调号之外,由于和声小音阶将七级音升高半音,六级音和七级音就会相差增二度(三个半音)了,为了方便旋律的发挥,所以在音阶上行时将六级音也升半音,却给人以大调的感觉,为了解决这个问题,便在音阶下行时将六级音和七级音还原,成自然小音阶的样子,称为旋律小音阶。

        d. 现代小音阶:

        除了调号之外,在现代的和声中,技术不断进步,大小调的调性也不再是很重要的事了,作曲家需要新音阶,现代小音阶就出现了,和旋律小音阶不同的是,现代小音阶在下行的时候是不将六级音和七级音还原的。

        乐理知识的小口诀

        在线谱上,升#降b号是我们的老朋友,也许,我们陪练常要求孩子们背口诀:

        一升G,二升D

        三A四E五升B

        六个升号是F

        七个升号是升C

        fa,do sol re la mi si,

        升号调啊牢牢记!

        一降F,二降B

        三E四A五降D

        六个降号是降G

        七个降号是降C

        qi mi,la,re,sol,do fa

        降号调啊不忘记!

        自然大小调:

        自然大调=凡是音阶符合“全、全、半、全、全、全、半”结构的音阶,就是自然大调(major)(34 78为半音)

        自然小调=凡是音阶符合“全、半、全、全、半、全、全”结构的音阶,就是自然小调(minor)(23 56为半音)

        关于认识音符

        全音符, 圆圈圈。(0) 唱几拍? 4/4拍中唱四拍。

        二分音符,多个竿(0) 唱几拍? 4/4拍中唱两拍。

        四分音符,黑黑脸 (0) 唱几拍? 4/4拍中唱一拍。

        一个尾巴是八分,(0) 唱几拍? 4/4拍中唱半拍。

        两个尾巴十六分(0) 唱几拍? 4/4拍中唱1/4拍。

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