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      古籍善本是什么

      古籍 时间:2017-06-21 我要投稿
      【www.dnfdy.com - 古籍】

        什么是古籍善本?它有什么收藏价值?下面小编带大家来好好认识一下古籍善本,快来看看吧。

        什么是古籍善本

        清代张之洞界定“古籍善本”的涵义,一是足本:无缺卷删页。二是精本:刻本极佳而字体版式极典雅,又校注极精而全,非唯少错讹,且?敝,能见出藏书史与古籍流传史的脉络。三是旧本:传承悠久的写本刻本,比如宋版元椠。有此三者,方得谓善本也。

        关于足本,厉鹗樊榭山房的故事值得一说。清氏郁礼购得樊榭山房大批藏书,以为风云际会,难能有再,故视若珍珙。细细整理,其中见有《辽史拾遗》写本孤本一部,竟缺了50页。百计寻绎,殊无踪迹。一直萦绕心头,挥之不去。一日过青云街,看到一和尚挑一担两簏废纸残卷,其中隐隐有一些手写的墨迹。遂命和尚停留以问之,殊不料两簏所盛,正是厉鹗樊榭山房旧物,大喜过望,遂不问价格指簏购下。闭门两阅月,终于检寻出《辽史拾遗》残余50页,手稿补齐,遂成足本。因《辽史拾遗》是手稿写本,唯剩一本,若无此番周折圆满,或成大憾。不比刻本缺页尚可据他本补入;所撰内容是无法再完全了。故郁礼之欣喜若狂心情,真难以言语形容之。

        关于精本,标准也十分具体。首先是技术上制作精良,包括刊刻水平,印制装订之细密,这在早期抄本写本上不是太大问题,但在雕版印刷盛行于世后,由于书刻字取欧阳询、批量生产,商贸交易渗入士子民间,从好处说是文化普及,读书人多;但也不乏书商为求利益最大化而粗制滥造,低成本高速度出书上市以谋厚润。校对粗疏、错讹百出,于是学界就有“尽信书不如无书;鲁迅先生更有明代刻书者好以己意揣测而改古书,故不可信之论。故元明以来,学者藏书家养成一个通行的习惯,每有书入手,必以笔墨朱迹在自藏或过目的古书上随读随校,记下书籍真伪、刊刻时间、版本优劣、流传过程,尤其是各本不同文字的?奔。这些批语与?奔,即成为后世古籍鉴定的最好依据。比如大学者陈寅恪就在学界有“不动笔墨不读书”的传说,他在30年代读南朝梁慧皎《高僧传》,批注?比Φ,反复多次,几于原书无有空白下笔处,为学界传为典范。至于这些精本的收藏价值,唯其独有,故极受收藏界、版本学界乃至史学界之大关注。2007年前后,古籍拍卖尚未风行,嘉泰拍卖上拍汲古阁本宋惠洪《冷斋夜话》线装四册,因有王国维手校、罗振玉题跋,在当时拍出天价,成为古籍拍卖界轰动一时的美谈,带动了后来古籍拍卖成为收藏大项的新风气。

        关于旧本,比较好理解。宋版元椠明刻,各有年代久远之优势。但除了年份之外,还有一些文化史上的优秀特征,为后代所不及。比如宋版书在市场上论页计价,一页值金一两。非唯久远的优势,也有美轮美奂的形式呈现。宋版书刻字风格,瘦者取欧阳修体,肥者取颜真卿体,间有取柳公权体(如今藏国家图书馆的赫赫盛名的《文选李善注》残本)。根据蜀本、浙本、建本不同而各取所需。单就字体而言,雕版印刷因不同刻工导致不同字体选择丰富多彩,但在宋末尤其是元以后活字印刷兴盛阶段,由于活字字模都是事先制作反复使用,以技术标准化来推动方便实用,反而无法做到一书一体一域一体。此外,忆早年在日本觅得日本书志学者长泽规矩也《宋代刻工表初编》,当时年轻,看一个宋代刻书工匠名录竟能构成一个如此堂皇的研究领域,心中十分赞叹。我曾经因为搜寻研究汉碑、魏碑、唐碑石刻碑碣墓志书丹刻工人物,转而对宋元印刷古籍刻工也有了粗浅的关注。初始以为这是相当于今之署名权而已,后来一想,它更有实用功效:刻本版心下方,通;崃锌坦ば彰,除了显示署名权之外,还是以此记录版片大小字数行数及计算工钱的凭据。尤其是大部头的典籍,卷帙浩繁,为计算工时工钱提供了省时便利的好方法。从北宋中期到南宋,这已成为宋版书的一个基本标志。又南宋刻书已经非常商业化了,如临安陈思书铺刊出《书小史》,名为“小史”,其实部头不小,文献记载有刻工记名。少时我们学书法篆刻的学子引为必读书,这正是南宋刻书的一个典范。今天宋版《书小史》已见不到了,而清代翻刻本又未必原样存刻工姓名,仔细想来,终觉有憾!

        另外一个需要说明的是,古籍刊刻通;岜芑,但宋版书的避讳通常不改字义以免混淆误讹,致后世不得要领。它的避讳方式多采取缺末笔的做法,这是宋版书的特征,为它朝所少见,故特附记于文末以备忘。

        古籍善本行情

        2016年上半年艺术品市场异军突出,新型艺术品收藏市场也逐渐进入藏家的视野。对于一些藏家来讲,并未有考虑过多的收藏品选择。毕竟收藏有诸多因素影响,古籍善本收藏专家带领我们来品味艺术品收藏市场中,古籍善本的收藏内涵。

        观近些年来艺术品收藏市场,古籍善本确实经历过一段沉默期。2000年左右,古籍善本可能与名人书札一起,不是那么容易受人关注,书画与瓷器可能占了市场的前几把交椅。但随着时代潮流的转变,古籍善本在艺术品收藏市场中的地位,或许有了一些转变。

        2001年,艺术品收藏市场中,古籍善本的总成交额还没有超过三百万元,但如今,各大拍卖公司举行的古籍善本拍卖会上,琳琅满目的拍品,甚是吸引藏家的关注。2012年过云楼藏书的拍卖,使古籍善本一举跨入亿元时代。2013年,某拍卖公司的古籍善本成交额近九千万元。

        古籍收藏的原则

        除了看年代外,还要注意刻本优于印本,初刻优于翻刻,套色优于单色,图画优于文字。随着印刷技术的日新月异,除了进入图书馆、博物馆等专业机构收藏;ね,流通于民间的线装古籍日益稀少,能称得上是“善本”的线装古籍更是屈指可数。历史上流传下来的雕版线装古籍,已成为不可再生的社会资源,稀缺性可见一斑。收藏古籍善本,不仅要有一定的经济实力,还应具备深厚的文化功底、鉴伪欣赏能力和市场分析能力。

        成交价格

        这些年拍卖会上,线装古籍连连拍出令人吃惊的高价。据了解,国内如今所能找到的宋刻本总量不跨越1200本,大都已被定为国家一级文物。早在上个世纪90年代初,还有为数不少的佳品呈现,珍稀的宋元刻本亦时有所见。跟着时间推移,藏家想找一件珍稀的明清著作也罢不容易。2012年,凤凰集团在匡时拍卖以2.16亿元的天价竞得过云楼藏书,打破了古籍善本拍卖的世界纪录!

        2014年11月21日晚间,中国艺术品交易秋拍“笔墨文章——之斋收藏信札写本”专场收槌,古籍善本板块总成交额5827万元。同年12月初,保利秋拍落槌。古籍板块三件“重器”惊艳全场,终国家图书馆行使国家优先购买权,将此3件拍品“定向入藏”,包括后唐天成二年刻本《佛说弥勒上生经》、晚唐刻本《李仁锐金刚经》与五代至北宋初年刻本《弥勒下生经》。

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